Cyprus Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 3.2 (2001)


List of Abstracts

Antonis Papaioannou

The Emergence of Conceptual Structures in Contexts of Openness and Closure

We usually talk about how concepts are formed and how they develop but we are not prompted to ask about what they really are. The traditional thinking on concept formation is taken to be a terminal process something which is not helpful in understanding the complexity of conceptualisation; a shift seems to be necessary to thinking of concepts as emergent properties of the mind and not as language propositions. Concepts can be thought of as conceptual dynamic structures and, at the same time, as contextual environments which do not necessarily instruct behaviour but provide familiar contextual bases as facilitators in interactional and integrative processes. Such terms as assimilation and accommodation implying regularity and boundedness are not conducive to the understanding of conceptual functioning either, because conceptualisations in the sense of emergent thinking, need not necessarily have permanence apart from a fragile crystallisation in the process of transformations in a conceptual density, for the time they remain a potentially active part of the whole behaviour pattern. This does not mean that emergence is not restricted as a process It is suggested that the openness of the organism to activation operates against closure contexts of past formations. We further suggest that conceptual thinking, being the result of brain functioning and the ever emerging, self-referential mind, reflects management dynamics. Our data failed to show definitional trends in explaining concepts and the answers given rather reflect emergent thinking arising from contextual environments. A sizable part of the responses entangled aspects of other concepts.

Olga Poulida

VOC Emissions in The Oil Industry: An Overview Of Prevention And Controlling Techniques

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions occur broadly throughout normal operation of several processes in an oil industry. The need for compliance with the national environmental legislation and the national obligations towards international agreements, aiming to the protection of the environments and the advancement of the employees’ health, safety and well-being requires the minimization of these emissions. This paper reviews the main sources of VOC emissions in a typical oil industry and presents the currently available methods for the prevention and control of these emissions.

Andreas Poullikkas

Fouling Mechanism Of Heavy Fuel Oil Fired Boilers

Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which is used for steam raising purposes in power stations, is produced from crude oil by blending the heavy liquid residues, which remain after the removal of valuable oil fractions, with heavy distillate oil. The use of HFO in boilers causes a loss of boiler availability due to the external fouling and corrosion of the high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) heat exchange surfaces. Problems, which might occur, include slagging in the combustion chamber, the formation of bonded deposits on the HT surfaces and the corrosion and blockage of air heaters and other ancillary equipment operating at lower temperatures.

G. Manolas, I. Vavouras

Greece: The Hidden Economy and the Convergence Path Towards EMU

In this paper we investigate and discuss the issue of the convergence path of Greece to the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) taking into account the size of its hidden economy which is estimated by using an indirect measurement method that employs causal econometric models based on the demand for money approach. According to the estimations, the relative size of the hidden economy to official GDP in Greece is very high, even by using the upward revised GDP data based on the European System of Accounts. However, this ratio shows a clear declining pattern after 1994. Having estimated the size of the Greek hidden economy, we then proceed to investigate and discuss the evolution of the macroeconomic indices that are used by the Maastricht treaty as entry criteria to the third stage of the EMU, incorporating the estimated magnitude of the hidden economy. The major issue revealed by our analysis is that if we could incorporate the hidden to the official GDP, the Greek economy would have fulfilled the requirements of the Maastricht treaty much faster, although the balance of the Greek net receipts from the European Union (EU) would have been less favorable.

George P. Vlachos

Economic Approach on Substandards Vessel Effect to Ship Owners

Keywords: Maritime Economics, Maritime Policy, Marine Safety

The paper aims to test the hypothesis “Why the ship owner is responsible for the existence of subststandard ships.”

Usually after a marine accident occurs the public expresses dismay and concern terming the ship involved “substandard”, blaming government for permitting the ship to be in the trade, the crew for operating the ship and the ship owner for keeping the ship in the service.

In addition the paper focuses on examining the phenomenon of “substandard shipping” identifying the costs and benefits related to the ship owner and determining the reasons for the existence of substandard ships For the purpose a descriptive approach is followed. The costs of operating substandard vessels are categorised. Specifically the analysis is based on a case of 15 Oil/Product Carriers of capacities 30,000-40,000 dwt, all of Greek ownership.

The data used are collected from reliable and widely accepted sources in the marine industry, such as published data from the O.E.C.D research. In addition much information was gathered through personal interviews of well known ship owners operating in the bulk liquid cargo market and also work experience acquired by the American Bureau of Shipping was utilised.

Moreover a model is formed which demonstrates the “level of operating costs” adopted by the ship owner. Concluding, the analysis has attempted to give an answer on what is the level and the composition of operating costs of substandard vessels’ incurred, from the ship owners point of view.

Nektaria Paleologou

Repatriated Families With Children With Sensory Problems

In the current research, interviews of semi-structural type were conducted to a sample of 50 parents coming from the ex-Soviet Union, concerning their children which appear to have sensory difficulties, either in their acoustic or visual system. These children are coming from families of Greek origin; for this reason we call them “repatriated”. It is an exploratory study, which aims at pinpointing the difficulties parents face in order to provide their children with the additional educational and medical support at the community’s Diagnostic and Advisory Centers. It also presents the measures the parents suggest for their support.

The results of the study are only quantitative, as this is a first exploratory approach to the problem. They point out the lack of trust of repatriated families towards the community’s Centers of Mental Health. Moreover, there seems to be great need for better provisions and measures in the field of Special Education in Greece for the new population of pupils with ethnic origin other than Greek as well as for the indigenous students. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is need for studies in the field of Intercultural Special Education concerning the provisions of Special Education and Counselling, the education of Special Education Professionals and other matters.

George Michaelides

University Education, Training and Research in Water and Waste-Water Engineering in the Context of Cyprus

The specific concern of this work is university education, training and research in water and waste-water engineering in the context of the characteristics and needs of Cyprus. The research has shown that the international trend is for an increase in the number of courses in the sector. It was found out that some changes in university curricula are needed since gaps were identified by Cypriot professionals. As concerns Cyprus, part-time studies is a recent trend. Two-thirds of professionals are willing to follow postgraduate courses (almost all by part-time or distance learning mode); two thirds of them are prepared to follow them in Cyprus (if offered). As concerns continuing education, there are good prospects and the majority prefer short courses. There is a trend for increasing interest for research in the future but problems of sponsorship, motives and time were identified. Performing research for firms is a field to consider in the future. Opportunities overseas include full-time/part-time studies, and customised programmes for Cypriots. The needs can be fulfilled in Cyprus by local institutions and through overseas institutions (whilst in Cyprus) by part-time, distance learning, and transfer of programmes. One possibility could be joint courses with EU Universities. Various useful modern techniques are available.

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