Cyprus Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 2.2 (1999)

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List of Abstracts

Ch. Gantes, G. Kanellaidis and C. Abacoumkin

Design charts for Cantilever retaining walls in seismic areas with uncertain soil conditions

Retaining walls provide lateral support for vertical or near vertical slopes of soil, which, in turn, may support vertical surcharge loads. This paper investigates cantilever retaining walls that are made of reinforced concrete, consist of a thin stem and a base slab, have drained, cohensionless soil backfill, are loaded by earth pressure due to a typical vehicle as defined by DIN regulations, and are located in seismic regions. The parameters that are used for the design of cantilever retaining walls include the characteristics of the soil they will retain, such as the specific soil weight, its angle of internal friction, and the angle of friction between soil and wall. This work investigates the influence of uncertainties in the values of these parameters on the optimum dimensions and reinforcement of the wall depending on its height and the seismicity of the region. Optimum design is based on iterating over a wide range of design parameters, eliminating those not satisfying the safety criteria, and selecting the one corresponding to minimum cost. The calculation of cost is based on Greek conditions. The results are presented in the form of charts that can help the designers identify the gradient of change in dimensions and reinforcement due to changes in soil parameters, and thus select suitable values of safety coefficients, depending on their confidence on the values of soil parameters that are used and of anticipated intensity of seismic activity.

G. Karaafotakis

Balkan economies and attempts for cooperation during the inter-war period

The importance of the Balkan economic cooperation is extremely important. Its significance started to become apparent since the Byzantine period, when it was part of the famous “route of silk”. Although the Balkan economic cooperation was unachievable during the inter-war period, it is true that its materialization was sought, yet only ceremoniously and without any willingness for compromise from the countries involved. The location of the Balkans in the context of the regional market and their role in the transportation of goods from Asia to Europe and vice-versa, increased the value of the peninsula. The dominant European interest, having in mind the particular position of the Balkans in the formation of the European market and the various alliances, created a framework of dependence between certain European and Balkan countries.

John Mylonakis

Theoretical and Marketing Research Insights to bank Imagery Positioning the Ideal Hellenic Bank

Bank positioning is an almost neglected concept from the Banking Institutions in Greece. This is due to the fact that bank marketing practices are being underutilized by almost the majority of the Commercial Banks. The bank marketers must finally recognize the importance of bank imagery and its components. “If you don't position your bank, the customer will certainly do this by his own”. The purpose of this article is to present the various theoretical aspects of positioning, its utility and applications in banking, to explore further the importance or salience of the possible bank attributes or bank image components to customers, as well as to identify, by research, the ideal banks of the Greek savers and the underlying characteristics for any ideal bank.

George M. Korres

The Effects of Technical Change on the Evaluation of Greek Manufacturing

This paper investigates the way in which technical change implemented and influenced the competitiveness and modernisation levels in the Greek manufacturing. We employ an empirical model which analyses the cost structure and technical change in twenty Greek manufacturing sectors with double digit codes (ISIC) for the period 1959-1990. The present methodology update substantially the existing applied literature. In particular, we adopt the Jorgenson D.W. and Fraumeni (1983, 1986, 1990) technique to estimate the technical change. We consequently decomposed it in three parts: (i) pure technology, (ii) non-neutral technology and (iii) scale augmneting component. Scale economies are also allowed.

Katherine Tyler and Sally Harridge-March

Service Quality in a UK Building Society

Service quality is an important factor in maintaining relationships between companies and their customers. This paper investigates service quality expectations and perceptions of staff and customers of a leading UK building society. The SERVQUAL instrument was administered to customers, front-line staff and customers. Responsiveness was the most important factor in increasing service quality. Interviews with customers revealed that the ability of the building society to provide high level service at critical life stages significantly affected the customer’s views of the overall level of service provided.

Christodoulos Kykkotis

Review of Radio on Fibre Systems

Radio on fibre transmission systems, comprising an optical fibre link and a free-space radio path, are expected to find an increasing role in telecommmunication networks over the next few years. These systems can provide broadband services to the mobile or cordless user in the millimetre-wave range, where the atmospheric attenuation aids frequency reuse in a cellular environment. Millimetre-wave radio and optical fibre are both capable of supporting the large bandwidth requirements associated with these services, and furthermore, the optical fibre is ideally suited to the distribution of millimetre-waves. Radio on fibre architecture provides the flexibility of concentrating expensive equipment at a central site, which can be shared among a number of remote antenna units of low complexity. This paper reviews technologies that have been provided for broadband wireless access based on millimetre-wave radio on fibre systems, and discusses the main system requirements. Recent advances in optical generation and detection of millimetre-wave signals together with various link demonstrators are described.

Ch. N. Christodoulou, D. Niarchos, O. Kalogirou

Absorption and Desorption of Hydrogen in Zr-Al Alloys

Zirconium-aluminium (Zr3 Al, Zr2 Al, ZrAl, ZrAl2 and ZrAl3) were prepared in the as-cast and homogenized state. The alloys with compositions ZrAl3 and ZrAl2 could form directly from the melt (congruent melting) exhibiting a single-phase mictrostructure. The alloys with compositions Zr3 Al, Zr2 A1 and ZrAl form peritectically exhibiting a multiphase microstructure. The phases present in the Zr-Al alloys were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The ability of the Zr-Al alloys to absorb and desorb hydrogen gas was investigated by Isochoro-Thermal Analysis (ITA) under initial hydrogen and vacuum conditions. The alloys with compositions ZrAl, ZrAl2 and ZrAl3 were found to absorb small amounts of hydrogen gas (less than 0.1 H/f.u). On the contrary, the alloys with compositions Zr3 Al, Zr2 A1 were found to absorb massive amounts of hydrogen gas (4.352H/Zr3 Al and 2.424h/Zr2Al) in the temperature range of 500 to 650°C. By heating these hydrides above 500°C under initial vacuum conditions, they begin to desorb only a fraction of the hydrogen even at temperatures as high as 1000°C. This is an indication that these hydrides are very stable. Further investigations revealed that during hydrogen absorption at high temperatures a very stable ZrH2 also forms.

Costas Mantzalos

Designing a Country - Graphic design in Cyprus since 1960 -

Despite the immense popularity of graphic arts as a cultural activity, the prevelance of graphic images in modern societies, and its importance of its contribution to contemporary artistic practice, there is very little literature, either of a scholarly nature or more directly related to the graphic arts professional practice. Indeed, graphic arts practice in Cyprus is more often perceived in very narrow terms, as a form of technical training and status, lacking any broader intellectual significance.

This study investigates the theoretical and historical framework of graphic design in Cyprus. It aims to provide a bibliographical reference on graphic design in Cyprus, focusing on design for print and the commissioning of graphic design historical background from 1960 until the present day. Furthermore this study also investigates the professional practice of graphic designers in Cyprus evaluating the relationship between Cypriot graphic design and society. In order to be able to support the aims of the study an investigation into the background history of Cyprus has been made, to enhance the understanding of the social pattern of Cypriot society.

The word Cyprus refers to the Republic of Cyprus recognised by the United Nations, the European Community and other international Organisations as the one and only legal authority of the country.

The post-colonial period (1960 till the present day) is the main period of investigation in an effort to establish the social context and identity of Cypriot society. The question of national identity has been a strong and very sensitive area of debate over the last 9 years of independence. “the average Greek, particularly in the better-off classes, does not admire the Greek Cypriot at a personal level. They are seen as wanting to be Greek when it suits them. Cypriot when it does not” (Pettifer, 1993, p. 196).

The British colonial period in Cyprus has left open wounds on the matter of the Cypriot identity. This investigation has no political intention, however, the matter of identity was examined.

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